Board of lrade

ournal

Contents Review of Wholesale Prices in 1946

Revised Coal Allocations for In- dustry

Mulberry Harbour Equipment for Disposal aie ie

Mulberry Harbour Disposal of Radio Components Kn

Output of Cotton —! in November ee is

Makers of Perambulators and

Push Chairs

Experts Reports on heieen In- dustries

The Week’s sail of Films

Official Announcements

Contents

Trade Mission Report on Visit to Middle East .

Market for United Kingdom Goods in Saudi Arabia

Canadian Wood and Wood Pro- ducts Industry

Growth of Palestine Trade, Janu- ary—June, 1946

Overseas Trade of Uganda

Classified Index me 1946

Customs Regulations and Tariff Changes

ae and

British India ioe iateinhiene French West African Export Taxes Exhibitions and Fairs Nationalized Polish Firms

Volume 153 No. 2615

Price 6d. net ; 26s. per annum ; post free 30s.

18 January 1947

Review of Wholesale Prices

in 1946

HOLESALE prices, as measured by the Board W.:: Trade index number, showed considerably

more activity during 1946 than in any year since 1940, when price control began to be fully effective. The rise of 6-2 per cent. between December 1945 and December 1946 was the of an almost unbroken upward movement throughout

cumulative result

the year.

Though increased wage rates and transport costs, shorter working hours and other economic factors in industry all contributed in some degree, the rising cost of imported raw materials had a widespread effect on prices in this country. This is illustrated by the marked contrast between the fall of nearly 1 per cent. in food prices, which are heavily sub- sidized, and the rise of 10 per cent. shown for industrial materials and manufactures, where the element of subsidy is of far less importance.

Of the 200 individual commodities included in the index, 143 price changes were recorded over the year (112 increases, 85 of which related to industrial materials, and 31 decreases—17 for in- dustrial materials); compensating changes took place for two further items. The movements were widely dispersed, ranging from a rise of 86 per cent.

Cost of Raw Materials

in the price of jute, to a fall of 34 per cent. in that

of potatoes. Food prices as a whole were 1946 very slightly the prices for

cent. 1945. half of higher

about 1 per December the owing to

lower in December than in

Prices rose during first

year mainly

Food Prices cereals. Subsequently, subsidized

more heavily than a year ago, and despite a sub-

prices of potatoes were stantial advance in the price of poultry in September, the index declined by the end of the year to rather below that of December 1945. the end of 1942 have, however, shown very little change. The only decline in the month to month movement of the industrial index was in February, when there was a reduction in the prices of wood pulp.

The annual groups, with the exception of coal,

Average prices since

materials

increases shown for the various other textiles and miscellaneous, were greater than in any year since 1940. Iron and steel and non-ferrous metals have risen more during 1946 than in the whole of the five pre years; previously they had been controlled very rigidly in the interests of price stability of war-time contracts, but they have now

been permitted to come more into line with market

vious

82 THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL 18 January 1947 conditions. * : : gre The annual increases from 1939 to 1946 for the main Dec. ’38 | Dec. ’39 | Dec. ’40 | Dec. °44 Deo. "45 pee . . 7 . 4 eae Group to ) to to dec. 38 index numbers are shown in the following table: Gi Dec ’39 | Dec 40 | Dec. °44| Dec. °45| Dec "461 to ee ee —— Dec. °46 | es Percentage increases compared with Food and Tobacco ; a year earlier ereals sie “ke 39-7 14-0 13-0 hd 2-3 81-0 ity Meat, fish and eggs... | 19-7 | 15-0 0-9 0-3*| 31 | 42-9 Date : Other food and tobacco} 27-5 33-6 10-7 5-9% | 84-4 Food and Industrial | Total—All ; Tobacco {Materials and} Articles Industrial Materials and Manufactures | Manufactures Coal i = 3-8 19°5 8-8 0-2 98-9 —— —— Iron and steel sine 2-6 26-6 2-3 13-5 56-0 92.6 99.9 94.5 Non-ferrous metals ... 17-4 8-1 0-8* 41-5 84-8 December 1939... cee 28-6 | mashed 24-3 Cotton 51-7 4-7 1-4 20-1 | 142-6 tax Ay Gee = heer: Oo a om 32-3 27-3 1-0* 5:8 94-7 December 1940... oo | 22-4 | 21-0 | 21-5 Other textiles | 49°6 7-9 6-0 12-6 | 137-9 aa Sa 7 Chemicals and oils ... 12-8 16-2 4-7* 9-9 69-8 = Miscellaneous ae 40-5 28-4 2-2 0-4 113-1 Yecember 1941... at 4-2 | 5-3 | 4-9 ] | ee, ee a - eI od as Jecrease, December 1942... see 5-7 2-3 | 3-4 Tike EF ————— | average barley (weight of 3) fell in price by about 1% per December 1943 (—) 0-5 23 | 13 unk December 1944 ei | 4-1 2-3 The rise of 3-1 per cent. in the meat, fish and eggs group, iat = ‘o | ote ‘a | ian 3 ~~ which had remained practically stable since 1940, was due December 1945... fect Nodal , nd he ees mainly to the substantial increase of 45 per cent. in the December 1946 (—) 0-9 | 10-0 | 6-2 price of poultry. The maximum price rather more than ce ec —_ - . . : a LLLLLCLCLCLCLCTSC~*és«sdounted in. September, butt dropped by nearly one-third Aggregate— in November. An authorized increase in August of Dec. 1938 to Dec. 1946... 70-2 89-7 82-9 23 per cent. in meat prices was the first change to be recorded for these items since December 1942. Canned

The increases between August and December 1939 were 33, 183 and 23 per cent., respectively.

The regrouped data, in which the prices of industrial materials and manufactures (except fuel) are classified according to the stage of completion reached by the products concerned, showed very similar increases between December 1945 and December 1946 for the three sub- divisions—10 per cent. for basic materials, 11 per cent. for intermediate products and 12 per cent. for manu- factured articles.

Building material prices rose rapidly up to September and at the end of the year were 15-8 per cent. higher than a year earlier.

The changes in each year from 1939 to 1946 are shown in the following table :-—

Percentage increases compared with a year earlier

Date a Se Sa onan

Basic Inter- Manu- 3uilding

Materials | mediate | factured | Materials

Products | Articles December 1939 50-2 22-0 9-8 6-6 December 1940 ae 17-2 28-6 18-3 20-4 December 1941 7:8 4-4 4-2 6-8 December 1942 (—)0-4 2-1 2-3 4-2 December 1943 4-5 0-8 1-8 1-9 December 1944 5-4 2-1 2-4 2-2 December 1945 ra 0-6 4-1 0-7 3-7 December 1946 10-0 11-2 11-9 15:8 Aggregate :—

Dec. 1938 to Dec. 1946 | 130-4 99-3 62-5 78-4

The increases between August and December 1939 were 29, 20, 12 and 6 per cent., respectively.

Commodity Groups

The annual increases from 1939 to 1946 for each group are shown in the table in the next column. The years 1941 to 1944 have been combined ; most of the movements were relatively small, but increases exceeding 10 per cent. were recorded for cereals (13-9 in 1941 and 12-2 in 1942); coal (10-6 in 1942 and 20-6 in 1944); cotton (11-1 in 1941 and 17-2 in 1944) and other textiles (14-7 in 1941).

Cereal prices during 1946 were affected mainly by the alterations in the extraction rate of flour and the reduction which took place in May in the weight of the national loaf. The net changes over the year were increases of 14 per cent. in the average price of bread, 10} per cent. for bakers’ flour and slightly over 3 per cent. for homegrown and imported wheat. Oats for feeding (weight of one-third) were dearer by about 43 per cent., but English Gazette

salmon also rose in price, by 22} per cent., but wet fish was cheaper on the average by about 10 per cent.

The ‘‘ other food’”’ group was outstanding with a fall of 5-9 per cent., the principal changes during the year being in respect of price-controlled commodities. Potatoes (weight of 3) were cheaper on the average by 34 per cent., while homegrown onions and butter fell in price over the year by 18 and 114 per cent., respectively. Tomato prices showed seasonal variations but were unchanged in December compared with a year ago. The only significant price rises were 12 per cent. for apples and 10} per cent. for cocoa.

Industrial Materials and Manufactures

There were two general advances in iron and steel prices—in January and August, but the latter movement was relatively small, being associated with the rise in transport costs. The largest increases recorded over the year were in respect of manufactured iron—48 per cent. for rainwater pipes, 33 per cent. for hoops and marked bars, and 29 per cent. for crown iron; nuts and bolts rose by 13 per cent. The various descriptions of pig iron included in the index were higher in price by 16 to 22 per cent. Smaller increases were shown for semi-finished steel, billets and wire rods rising by 5 per cent. and tin bars and sheet bars by 2 per cent. The only change in the price of heavy melting scrap was an increase of 5 per cent. in August, due entireley to higher transport costs. High- speed tool steel was not affected by either of the general rises and fell over the year by about 4} per cent. Among the finished steel items, the largest increases in home market prices were :—Blackplates (20}$ per cent.), gal- vanized corrugated sheets (18 per cent.), tinplates (17 per cent.), rolled steel joists (144 per cent.), rivets for ship- building (12 per cent.) and black sheets (10 per cent.). For the remaining items, the increases ranged from 5} to 84 per cent. but the export price of tinplates, which is not controlled, rose by 51 per cent.

The rise of 41-5 per cent. during 1946, in non-ferrous metal prices compares with an aggregate increase of 26-1 per cent. from the outbreak of war up to the end of 1945. The price index for this group is accordingly now more in line with that of other industrial materials. There were three increases during the year in the prices of copper, zine and lead, amounting in the aggregate to 58 per cent. for electrolytic copper, 76 per cent. for zinc and 79 per cent. for lead. The corresponding rises for lead pipes and lead sheets were 614 and 65 per cent. respectively, while that for brass was about 43 per cent. Tin prices advanced in September by 27 per cent.

Raw cotton prices were substantially higher in December 1946 than a year ago. The controlled prices were raised in June and October, the aggregate increases over the year being 56} per cent. for American and 43 per cent. for Egyptian. Yarn prices showed several upward move- ments during the year as a result of increased wage rates and other factors, in addition to the rises due to the in- creased cost of raw materials; for the types included in

18 J

Indu Ba Int Me

Builc

47 18 January 1947 THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL 83 be Wholesale Pri " olesale Price Index Numbers for 1946 "38 46 Average for the Year 1930 = 100 0 1945 1946 7 Group a SS oe) Ya BO 2 Pe ee Re oe Pee ee | Dec. Jan. | Feb. | Mar. | Apr. | May Jane | | July Aug r, | Se pt. | Oct. | Nov. | Dec. I. Cereals wee 163-9 | 163-2 | 163-4 | 165-4 | 165-6 | 168-4 | 169- | 168- 6 | 168: 3 | 168-9 | 167-0 | 167-2 | 167-7 0 II. Meat, fish and. eggs or 121-4 | 121-4 | 121-9 | 122-0 | 121-9 | 121-8 | 121-8 | 121-8 | 122-4 | 127-9 | 127-6 | 126-4 | 125-2 8 Itt. Other food and tobacco 185-0 | 185-0 | 184-3 | 184-7 | 185-4 | 183-7 182-4 | 190-0 | 184-4 | 175-9 | 174-9 | 174-8 | 174:1 6 -- —— | ——-— | | | | | | _-— —_—— ———- _ —_ —— - 9 Total—Food and tobacco 157-6 157-4 | 157-4 | 158-2 | 158-5 | 158-7 | 158-5 | 160-9 | 159-1 | 158-2 | 157-2 | 156-7 | 156-3 Rg —_——_ | |] J DS ee ee —— —-— - —- —!| ~ 1 fy. ‘Goal .... : fee ce ... | 243-7 | 243-7 | 243-7 | 243-7 | 243-7 | 243-7 | 243-7 | 244-2 | 244-2 | 244-2 | 244-2 | 244-2 | 244-2 V. Iron and steel 189-9 | 205-3 | 205-3 | 205-3 | 205-3 | 205-2 | 205-2 | 206-4 | 211-0 | 214-8 | 215-6 | 215-6 | 215-6 VI. Non-ferrous metals 126-9 | 128-8 | 130-4 | 130-4 | 139-8 | 143-4 | 143-4 | 161-2 | 161-4 | 163-3 | 167-1 | 174-6 | 179-5 Der VII. Cotton... 162-9 | 164-1 | 164-7 | 164-9 | 165-8 | 165-8 | 171-8 | 171-8 | 171-8 | 171-8 | 180-4 | 195-4 | 195-7 VIII. Wool 182-6 | 182-6 | 182-6 | 182-6 | 182-6 | 182-6 | 182-7 | 187-2 | 188-2 | 191-4 | 191-4 | 191-7 | 193-0 IX. Other te xtiles.. 144-3 | 144-3 | 144-4 | 145-7 | 145-4 | 146-0 | 146-9 | 153-2 | 154-1 | 154-1 | 154-1 | 164-6 | 162-5 1 X. Chemicals and oils 144-3 | 145-1 | 145-4 | 145-4 | 145-7 | 145-9 | 146-1 | 147-8 | 148-2 | 151-3 | 150-1 | 150-3 | 158-6 - XI. Miscellaneous 189-9 | 189-5 | 186-6 | 186-3 | 186-2 | 187-5 | 187-5 | 190-0 | 190-3 | 190-4 | 189-9 | 189-7 | 190-7 he Total—Industrial materials and an manufactures ae ... | 175-4] 179-5 | 179-1 | 179-1 | 179-9 | 180-6 | 181-2 | 184-7 | 186-2 | 187-8 | 188-7 | 191-2 | 192-9 ird SS ee ee a | ee eee eee eee eee ae eS ee of ToraLt—aAll articles 169-5 | 172-0 | 171-8 172-1 1| 172-7 | 173-2 | 173-4 | 176-5 176-8 | 177-4 | 177-6 | 179-0 | 179-9 be | —— | ae See a a ————— —___—_—| —__- —— ——— —|-—- -_—-— ed Industrial materials (e nigiaties was —= | sh Basic materials : ies 188-4 | 187-3 | 184-5 | 184-6 | 185-1 | 185-8 | 186-9 | 192-6 | 192-9 | 194-2 | 196-2 | 203-3 | 207-2 Intermediate products 183-5 | 189-5 | 190-1 | 190-2 | 191-1 | 191-5 | 192-2 | 196-0 | 197-8 | 193-8 | 199-9 | 201-8 | 204-1 Manufactured articles 161-4 | 168-4 | 168-5 | 168-6 | 169-6 | 170- 6 171-0 | 173-4 | 175-7 | 178-9 | 179-5 | 180-3 | 180-7 | ay POSE Pe PPE POSEHy PPTRPS PSOeeE Fee EEE ET PPS we Pee PP Building materials... ww. ewes | 159-5 | 163-1 | 164-3 164-3 | 165-7 1 | 168-2 sd in 1-7 | 178-8 | 184-3 184-9 | wail 184-6 eS a anna ana - } a mene vo he Average Index Numbers 1938-1946 to (1930 = 100) in ++ “4 seited | 1938 | 1939 | 1940 | 1941 | 1942 | 1943 | 1944 1945 1946 it. Seed ec ee Ad eh a (ee ens eee eee every Maerua as es & ee aE Pee i I. Cereals ; saa aie 109. 9 96-5 138-0 150-4 188-8 179-3 167°3 164-7 166- 9 Il. Meats, fish and eggs ae ses 85-9 88-7 114-6 118-1 116-7 121-7 121-8 121-8 123-5 - II. Other food and tobacco ... ... 97-5 104-6 143-3 166-5 171-3 179-0 182-4 184-7 181-6 Total—Food and tobacco... as 97-3 97-3 | 132-7 146- 1 157-5 159-8 157-8 157-9 158-1 e cA | Sie eC | ee Sees aoem | ema SAE sees eed ES Dena Be sos, at iV... oat. ..; 123-2 121-1 140-1 159-5 171-1 185°8 209-1 237-0 244-0 in V. Iron and steel 139-1 131-5 159-2 181-1 182-5 182-8 184-1 188-8 209-2 1e VI. Non-ferrous metals . Riene 94-4 100-4 123-2 123-9 125-8 126-0 127°8 127-1 150-9 t. VII. Cotton nite as oes sas 83-6 88:5 125-3 138-2 140-9 136-7 153-6 161-9 173°3 di VIII. Wool... sae rp see x 101-4 105°-8 157°3 170-1 172-9 177°3 183-7 183-2 186-5 ; IX. Other textiles es ae ae 68-7 79-7 108-5 120-2 128-4 132-8 134-3 139°1 151-1 1a X. Chemicals and oils ... ts sets 94-7 95°3 po 126-9 136-0 146°3 151-4 149-3 148-3 nm XI. Miscellaneous oe ‘itis cee 93-2 98-7 42-6 169-1 172-0 177-1 184-2 188-6 188-7 or Ease en eee | eae Vee: eae: A E ee d Total—Industrial materials and n manufactures... Ss a 103-5 105-5 138-4 155°8 160-1 164-0 170-2 174-7 184-2 e |__| a= —|—_-—_——_—|——- - enemas t Torat—AIll articles | 101 i | 102-8 136-6 152-6 159-4 162-8 166-2 169-0 75-2 J es a cas rT pee Veneers. Cre - = Industrial materials (excluding fuel) :— M Basic materials 92:9 | 99-7 147-3 166-7 168-8 173-8 184-1] 187-7 191-6 g Intermediate products ae oF 104-5 | = 106-5 145-0 165-1 169-2 171-5 175-2 181-0 195-2 ie Manufactured articles... ror ie 112-1 111-3 133-7 148-4 152-2 154-9 158-6 160-9 173-7 |- an ansaid See! SS a Eee _— Tr Building materials 104: 1 | 104. 8 121-8 139-4 144-9 149-6 153-3 157-5 “173 9 = _ ( ). : the index the advances ranged from 284 per cent. for The principal changes among ‘‘ chemicals and oils” , Egyptian to 37 per cent. for American yarns. Quotations were increases of 36 and 63 per cent. respectively, in for the various descriptions of cotton piece-goods used December in the average prices of refined groundnut oil and g for clothing were unchanged throughout the year, rises crude palm kernel oil, these being the only changes recorded f in yarn prices being offset by increased subsidies. The for these commodities. White lead paint, which advanced in f price of industrial canvas, which is not subsidized, advanced _ price several times during the year, was nearly 35 per cent. "4 by 27 per cent. higher in December 1946 than at the end of the previous 0 The changes recorded in wool prices all took place in year, while varnish rose by 30} per cent. Other increases ; the latter half of the year. The withdrawal of the subsidies recorded were in respect of lubricating oil (9 per cent.), on raw wool and tops caused a general rise in July, followed household soap (74 per cent.), coal tar products (54 per by subsequent movements in later months. By December cent.) and general chemicals (43 per cent.). On the other 1946, raw wool, noils and merino tops were dearer by 11, hand, there was a reduction of about 15 per cent. in the 15 and 7 per cent., respectively. The increases in yarn price of fuel oil, following the changes in October in the ; prices varied from 4} per cent. for crossbred weaving to zonal price system and the subsidy of 1d. per gallon to nearly 9 per cent. for worsted. consumers. Prices of drugs were also lower on the average The ‘‘ other textile’? group, for which the index rose by about 2 per cent. : by 12-6 per cent., was influenced mainly by the substantial Among the ‘‘ miscellaneous”? items, the majority of advance of 86 per cent. in the price of jute. As a result the price increases were in respect of building materials. of the decontrol of export prices in India and the raising These included bathstone, 253 per cent.; bricks, 17 per of the export duties, prices in this country increased in cent. for pressed and 74 per cent. for stocks; earthenware November by 82 per cent., falling in December by 11 per __ pipes, 164 per cent.; tiles, 15 per cent.; slates, 14 per cent. A sharp rise of 40 per cent. occurred in July in the cent.; chalk lime, 114 per cent.; Thames ballast, 84 per price of sisal, and linen yarns were dearer over the year cent.; and glass, 4 per cent. Cement, however, fell in by about 3 per cent. price by 3% per cent. The only other significant rises

84 THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL

related to hides and skins; imported and native hides advanced in price by about 3 per cent. and calfskins by 34 per cent. These upward movements, however, were largely offset by a reduction in the early months of the year in the prices of rubber (11 per cent.) and of wood dulp (8}—12 per cent.).

Percentage Changes: The following table shows the increases and decreases in December 1946 compared with December 1945 among the price averages for food and industrial materials.

DECEMBER 1946 COMPARED WITH DECEMBER 1945

| Food and tobacco (68 items)

| : : Industrial materials (132 items)

Per cent.

| ee ee ee nereases | Decreases | Increases | Decreases Over 70... | 2 | 60—70 A | . 2 50—60 ... | 3 40—50 i | 4 30—40 ... | 3 9 20—30 | - | 6 10-20 ... | 6 5 21 7 Under 10 20 | 6 8 10 Total ... | 27 14 85 17 |

Note.—({1) In cases where the Government buys a commodity at one price and resells it at a lower one (e.g., home-produced meat), the subsidized price is the one used for the index ; where different prices are charged according to the use to which the article is put (e.g., in the case of sugar and flour) a weighted average of these is taken.

(2) The commodities in groups V to XI are regrouped to give the index numbers for basic materials, intermediate products and manu- factured articles. In many cases quotations are available for basic materials, but not for corresponding products at later stages of manu- facture; the very large rise for some of these (e.g., paper-making materials) largely accounts for the fact that this index has risen most compared with 1938. Similarly, the greater rise for intermediate products than for manufactured articles is largely due to the timber items included in this index.

(3) The index for building materials is based on a selection of commodities from groups V, VI, X and XI.

EXPORT TO NEW ZEALAND

A RICH EMPIRE MARKET

Mr. Ronald E. Murray, Principal of the Murray Organization, arrives from Wellington early February, 1947, with definite buying orders for the undermentioned goods :—

HAT MATERIALS : Hoods and felt bodies for men’s and women's : hats of wooland fur. Capelines, hat leathers, ribbons, galloons for men’s hats, silk, satin and art. silk linings, muslins, velvets,

elastics, and any other hat-makers’ and millinery material.

TEXTILES : Gaberdines, cotton, union and wool, shirting poplins serges, flannels, suitings, women’s dress, costume and mantling, cloth, Harris tweeds, woollen worsted for women’s and men’s wear, tie cloth, scarf cloth, handkerchief material, lingerie fabrics, fancy dress fabrics, opal organdie, linings of all types of art. silk, cotton brilliantine, alpaca, etc.

WATERPROOF MATERIAL for clothing.

LEATHERCLOTH for book-binding, furnishing upholstery.

FURNISHING MATERIALS: Moquettes, carpets.

PLASTICS : for local manufacture by licence, or royalty, or straight- out importation where permitted.

Art jewellery, ornaments, costume jewellery, watch straps, cigarette cases, powder compacts and similar lines.

Manufacturers or their representatives should arrange an appointment now, as Mr. Murray can give full particulars of the Import Licensing Scheme and how best to secure a share of the rich market offered by Britain's third largest customer.

'n view of Mr. Murray's limited stay, It is advisable to make an early appointment so that his itinerary may be arranged.

Address in first instance to :— Mr. Ronald E. Murray Representing

The Murray Organization of New Zealand, c/o Chalcroft Ltd., 54 Fleet St., London, E.C.4

18 January 1947

Coupon-free Rights of Registered Exporters

EGISTERED exporters of woven piece goods have R:: a considerable period been permitted to acquire supplies of these goods for export without the surrender of coupons. These privileges are being extended under the provisions of Article 1 (4) (d) of the Consumer Rationing (Consolidation) Order, 1947, which comes into operation on January 20, 1947, to permit registered ex- porters to acquire any rationed goods in respect of which they are registered, without the surrender of coupons. Registers are in course of preparation by the Board of

Trade under Article 39 of the Order as follows :—

Register of Exporters of Woven Piece Goods and Rationed Goods wholly or partly manu- factured therefrom.

Knitted Goods, and rationed goods (other than gloves) made from

.

knitted, netted or crocheted cloth.

a > is s, Corsets.

. = 5s », Gloves.

ss . an » Fur Apparel.

ss ne = 3», Footwear.

i. = ‘5 » Hand-knitting yarn not containing

more than 15 weight of wool.

per cent. by

The Register of Exporters of Woven Piece Goods and Rationed Goods wholly or partly manufactured therefrom will be identical with the Register of Exporters of Woven Piece Goods compiled under the Consumer Rationing Order, 1945. The other Registers will be identical with those kept under the corresponding classes of the List of Registered Exporters compiled under the provisions of the Apparel and Textiles Order, 1942.

It should be noted that registered exporters may not acquire coupon-free supplies of Hand Knitting Yarn containing more than 15 per cent. by weight of wool except in accordance with the provisions of S. R. & O. 1944, No. 81,

British Postal Traffic

The average daily receipts of the Post Office in the United Kingdom from postal traffic per working day in each month from January 1945 to November 1946 are shown below. ‘Telegraph and telephone receipts, savings bank and money and postal order business are excluded, but the value of postage stamps used for receipt stamps and other revenue duties is included.

Proportion to Average Amount Average Receipts of Money in the corresponding | Increase Period Received Daily period of 1924-34 or (except 1926) Decrease —————_$ ———_—\——_—_ 1945-46 1945 1946 1945 1946 £ £ Per cent. | Per cent. | Per cent January 218,862 | 214,083 176-5 172-6 2:2 February 215,290 | 212,721 178-1 175-9 1-23 March 231,239 | 222,133 186-0 178-6 3-9 April 210,322 | 228,088 166-9 181-0 + 8-4 May... 212,517 | 219,977 169-1 175-0 + 3:5 June 208,571 | 232,577 167-3 186-6 +11-5 July... 227,152 | 226,815 179-5 179-3 0:1 August .. | 208,706 | 226,743 173-6 188-6 + 8-6 September ... | 209,255 | 235,634 164-4 185-1 +12-6 October .. | 214,880 | 241,279 161-6 181°4 +12°3 November ... 221,440 |} 245,780 166-8 185-2 +11-0 December 277,318 164-3 Year 221,296 170-9

Daily postal receipts in November showed a rise of 1-9 per cent. compared with October. There is normally very little movement between the two months, and accordingly the index number based on the corresponding period of 1924-34 (except 1926) increased from 181-4 to 185-2. This figure has only been exceeded twice during the year.

Compared with a year ago, November receipts were greater by 11 per cent., the average increase in the value of traffic for the eleven months to date being 5-4 per cent.

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18 January 1947

HOME

THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL 85

NEWS SECTION

Revised Coal Allocations for Industry

EVISED allocations of coal to industry during the

next six critical weeks, were announced by the

President of the Board of Trade, Sir Stafford Cripps, and the Minister of Fuel and Power, Mr. Shinwell, in London on Monday.

The President explained that in some districts actual deliveries of coal had only amounted to 55-60 per cent. of existing allocations. Increasing shortage had meant the need for ad hoc help to various firms coupled with general uncertainty as to what was going to happen. From January 20, smaller allocations would be made to all industries on a realistic basis of the actual deliveries which could be anticipated. Subject to any special and unavoid- able transport difficulties, industry could reasonably expect to receive the amounts laid down in the new allocations.

The new allocations amounted to about one-half of the former allocations. This did not, however, mean that undertakings would only receive one-half of former deliveries. While in some instances there might be a big reduction, in others there would be very little.

Work of National Importance

In addition to this flat overall allocation, special addi- tional supplies would be made available to firms of national importance. Subject to general guidance from head- quarters, the amount of these additional supplies would be decided by the Regional Fuel Allocation Committees who could best judge the needs and importance of individual firms. The undertakings which qualify for these extra supplies would be notified as soon as possible.

It was hoped that the new system of allocations would give a greater degree of certainty to industry and would mean that the more important producers would be able to get sufficient coal to continue production. Special priority road and rail transport arrangements had been made to carry the coal.

Earlier, the President had shown that the miners were playing their part. The latest figures showed an increase of 170,000 tons per week witha labour force 3,400 fewer than the same period of last year. The Christmas and New Year fortnight was particularly striking, production being about one million tons more than last year.

Increased Industrial Consumption

Consumption had been very much increased compared with the previous year, however, owing to the starting up of many new factories, the increased tempo of produc-

tion in existing factories and mechanization on a con- siderable scale. All this meant bigger consumption, particularly of

Increased domestic consumption, partly due had week

electricity. to increased use of convenient electric appliances, resulted in electricity consumption in Christmas last month being 33 per cent. higher than in 1945.

As well as using more coal, this extra load put an impossible strain on generating capacity—one of the renewals we had had to neglect during the war years. Transport—which had also had to be neglected during the war—was another difficulty, winter being notoriously the worst time of year.

The President gave the following round figures of weekly coal consumption excluding colliery usage :—

Thousand tons per week.

Electricity 650 Gas... re ‘ie Ks wie 530 Coke Ovens (domestic & industrial) 400 Tron and steel ; 200 AH other industrial uses 800 Domestic 600 Railways assis he's er 300

Of these, the electricity power stations would be made an absolute first priority. They would be given enough coal to work full out. This was essential because of the impossi- bility of making selective cuts. Cuts might still have to be made, however, owing to shortage of capacity. They

could only be avoided if the utmost economy were practised by individuals and firms throughout the country.

Gas would be similarly maintained. Nor were transport or domestic consumers being reduced.

Scope for Economy

The scope for economy was not, therefore, very great. The amount that could be cut down represented the 1,150,000 tons used weekly by industry in general including iron and steel and the industrial coke ovens. On present estimates there would not be enough coal to meet the requirements of this group by about 300,000 tons a week.

In reply to questions it was stated that no firm would be entirely deprived of coal. New allocations for iron and steel and coke ovens would amount to about four-fifths of the old. Total weekly deliveries to industry during the next six weeks were expected to be about 87 per cent. of weekly deliveries in November. Gas and electricity would receive more coal than in November (this might also be the case with some of the essential industries). Estimated total weekly coal production was 3,720,000 tons. Essential food industries would be very high in the list of priorities for special allowances, and in industries such as laundries, cars and clothing, consideration, would be given, on their merits, to individual firms.

It was thought that the amount of total unemployment would be quite small, though some short time and re-arrangement of hours would be involved. Export would be affected, though it was hoped not seriously.

The scheme would only operate for six weeks. By the end of that time the position should have improved, as domestic requirements would have been reduced.

° Higher Coal Output

Since the above statement, the Ministry of Fuel and Power have announced that output of deep-mined coal in the United Kingdom in the week ended January 11—the first full weck’s operation under Nationalisation—amounted to 3,790,900 tons as compared with 3,552,400 tons in the corresponding week last year, an increase of 238,500 tons secured with 3,400 fewer men.

oe a a a er a Cloth and Clothing

The amendments necessary to bring into force the reductions in retail margins of which full details were given on page 43 of last week’s issue, are comprised in the following Orders now available through any bookseller or newsagent or direct from H M. Stationery Office, Kings- way, London, W.C.2, and branches.

Utility Cloth and Clothing

The Cloth and Household Textiles (Utility) (Maximum Prices) Order 1947 (S. R. & O. 1947 No. 59), price Id.

The Utility Apparel (Maximum Prices and Charges) Order 1947 (S. R. & O. 1947 No. 57). This Order also substitutes Related Schedule I.F. (Men’s, Youths’ and Boys’ Outerwear) for Related Schedule I.E., price 1d. and 3d. respectively.

Non- Utility Cloth and Clothing The General Apparel, Furnishings and Textiles (Whole-

salers’ and Retailers’ Maximum Prices and Charges) Order 1947 (S. R. & O. 1947 No. 58), price ld.

Industrial Coupons for more Workers

The industrial Ten coupons have been made available this year to clothing factories where less than ten workers are employed. The conditions are that the workers must be engaged wholly in the making up of cloth into clothing or other textile made-up goods and of hats and hoods, but only where these occupations are carried on in factories exclusively devoted to them. Private dressmakers and. persons engaged in repair and alteration work are not eligible.

86 THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL

18 January 1947

Mulberry Harbour Equipment for Disposal

EGOTIATIONS have been concluded whereby the Nitreneh Mission in the United Kingdom are

purchasing on behalf of the Ministry of French Colonies, a considerable amount of equipment from the ** Mulberry ’’ Harbour which will be used in the con- struction of a prefabricated port off the French West African coast.

There is, however, still a quantity of ‘‘ Mulberry Harbour equipment with the Ministry of Supply available for disposal which might wholly, or in part, be suitable for providing sea coast and other facilities.

Most of the equipment designed in the war is capable of loading in sections on rail or road. Fulfilment of this requirement whilst making certain items elaborate and therefore expensive for the purpose in view, has the advantage that movement to remote and awkward sites becomes possible.

Whilst there might be schemes where the components could be employed in the manner for which they were originally designed, they could also be used in combination, in part, or again in combination with more ordinary materials and means of construction.

Being designed for war purposes, cost of maintenance did not enter into consideration.

Some of the equipment, moreover, would have a long life and some of it a comparatively short one. In the latter case, installation might, therefore, be accepted as a temporary expedient for creating development.

Some of the items still available for disposal are :—

Spud Pierheads

These are specially designed self-mooring pierheads. They are elaborate pieces of equipment, the use of which might, however, be justified in exposed waters for develop- ing industry where the berthing of steamers of up to say 5,000 tons, or possibly more, might be required.

Floating Roadway

This specially designed equipment is a floating pontoon bridge which is exceptionally flexible, also strong enough to take loadings of 25 tons (Mark I type) or 40 tons (Mark II type); it can ride out in a seaway with waves arising from winds of Force 5. It consists primarily of 80 feet span bridges carried on floats or pontoons, some of which are made of concrete and some of steel.

The concrete floats can only be transported by water, but as the steel floats are made in sections, they can be transported by road and can, therefore, be taken to, and assembled at, difficult sites.

The bridge spans and roadway complete weigh about 32 tons for the 80 feet span, but as they are built of members bolted together, they are capable of transport by road and easy erection at the site. Some of the spans are telescopic to permit adjustments for various purposes.

It is obvious that the floating roadway, apart from its primary use as a shore connection to pierheads might be used in place of a bridge for crossing waters, where the difficulties and cost of forming permanent bridges, or causeways could not be justified by the traffic.

Bridge Floats

There are various components intended for use as floats which could be utilized in shallow water by sinking them as the block ships were sunk in ‘‘ Mulberry,’ or they could be used as a ‘‘ core”? over which rubble could be tipped to form a breakwater or mole to the required dimensions.

Shore Ramp Float

This was used for the shore connections of the floating roadway. It could be towed already attached to five spans of the bridge if necessary and being of very shallow draught, could be floated up the beach to high tide level. The shore abutment could be made more simple, however, if the roadway was for use in non-tidal water.

Erection Tanks

These cylindrical tanks, 36 feet long by 8 feet diameter, are fitted with sluice valves and hose connections for sinking and raising with compressed air. They were oricinally used in the assembly of the floating roadway, but could also be used to provide floats for an opening span in a length of bridging as referred to in the last paragraph under “Floating Roadway”’ above.

Port Construction Pontoons

P.C. pontoons are made up from small tank units and may be connected up in various ways for different uses. The units, of which there are two types, e.g., standard unit

ry and Scow end unit, are constructed in the following dimensions :—

Standard unit 13 feet 6 inches long, 5 feet 6 inches deep,

5 feet 6 inches wide, approximate weight 2} tons each unit.

Scow end unit 7 feet long, 5 feet 6 inches deep, 5